The Basic Technical Specification Of RC Electric Vehicles Simplified For Beginners

When you are browsing RC automobiles online and decide to check the details of an RC electric vehicle that you are interested in (let’s suppose it is an high speed on road racing car), this is what you will likely be presented with, if you are on a quality, customer-focussed website, that is:

– SP28404 brushless motor

– SP28405 brushless electronic speed control

– Anodized aluminium centre drive joint

– Compact front/rear differentials

– Suspension arms with adjustable Width

– Anodized aluminium radio tray

– Solid shock towers and front/rear bumper

– High quality on-road tires with chrome sprayed rims

– 7.2v 1100mah Ni-Mh battery power required

– 7.2v 1500mah Ni-Mh battery or 7.4v 1300mah lithium battery pack is optional

– Anodized aluminium motor heat guard

– High duty front bumper foam provides

– Vehicle length: 265 mm

– Vehicle Width: 140 mm

– Height: 80 mm

– Wheelbase: 174 mm

– Track Width: 77 mm (F/R)

– Gear Ratio: 10.6:1

– Ground Clearance: 8mm

– Net Weight: 790g

– Wheel Diameter: 49mm

– Wheel Width: 18mm

How do you make head or tail of this fairly detailed specification for your rc electric vehicle, without it resulting in your eyes glazing over? Help is at hand right here. Let us go through these features one by one and you will be overjoyed with enlightenment.

SP28404 brushless motor

This is the latest, more advanced, powerful type of motor, which is reflected in the overall (higher) starting price of the automobile in which it is fitted. The benefits to you are a potentially speedier, more dynamically efficient RC vehicle, with the added bonus that it should be simpler to maintain. RC automobiles with brushed motors however, are the classic, conventional types.

SP28405 brushless electronic speed control

The RC electric vehicle’s speed is regulated with an electronic speed controller (abbreviated to ESC). This is the component that controls the drive motor mentioned above, together with the general electronics. Most automobiles come integrated with the motor and ESC, but are separate purchases in the more enhanced set-ups.

Anodized aluminium centre drive joint

More commonly known as the RC electric vehicle’s drive shaft, this is the central rod that runs from the front to the rear of the automobile. Being made of aluminium makes it lighter without compromising on the vehicle’s overall stability and sturdiness.

Compact front/rear differentials

A differential is a device that in most cases incorporates gears and is designed to drive each pair of front and rear wheels with equal force, but still allows the wheels to rotate at different speeds. Differentials on good electric vehicles are high performance.

Suspension arms with adjustable Width

The suspension arms provide your RC vehicle with powerful cushioning, as in a conventional car. Being adjustable allows the vehicle to be driven at optimum suspension on different terrains, especially when running over bumpy or rocky ground and when turning corners.

Anodized aluminium radio tray

This is tray that houses the in-built radio receiver in your RC vehicle. Being anodized gives it increased corrosion and wear resistance, making it harder than bare aluminium.

Solid shock towers and front/rear bumper

Integrated with the suspension system, the shock towers provide a damping effect on the overall vehicle suspension.

High quality on-road tires with chrome sprayed rims

The specification for this RC electric vehicle relates to an on road racing car. The makeup of the tires is important here. It is like differentiating between a mountain bike, with its thick, knobbly, high-friction tires and a road bike, with its slimmer, low-friction tires and a less prominent tread. It all comes down to performance requirements on the terrain that the RC vehicle was designed/intended to run on. The chrome rims adds a splash of quicksilver that finishes off the wheels nicely.

7.2v 1100mAh Ni-Mh battery power (required), 7.2v 1500mah Ni-Mh battery or 7.4v 1300mah lithium battery pack (optional)

7.2-volt nickel cadmium batteries are standard power sources, often referred to as battery packs. Although they are identical in size, they differ in capacities ranging up to 3700mAh typically. As the battery pack is extra, it is advisable to go for the largest capacity that you can afford, if you desire more running time (the downside is that you’ll need more time to charge it up).

Anodized aluminium motor heat guard

Unsurprisingly, your RC electric vehicle’s motor will get very hot. The guard thankfully provides protection against heat, which results from high speed running.

High duty front bumper foam

As with conventional, real-world automobiles, the front foam bumper needs to deliver maximum protection to your RC vehicle against impacts.

Vehicle dimensions

Length, width, height, ground clearance, net weight, wheel diameter and wheel width are self-explanatory.

Your RC electric vehicle’s wheelbase will be the length from the leading edge of its front wheels to the trailing edge of its rear wheels.


Track refers to track width, the distance between the center of the left tire and the center of the right tire.

Gear Ratio

This is the relationship between the numbers of teeth on two gears that are meshed or two sprockets connected with a common roller chain, or the circumferences of two pulleys connected with a drive belt.

So, there you have it. We’ve just covered some of the basic technical terms that you are likely to come across when you are enjoying your time shopping for your future RC electric vehicles. Whatever you do, don’t be fazed by these terms – think of it as an educational experience, a journey of discovery that is a part of your enjoyment of RC electric vehicles.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming – A Natural Way To Improve Eyesight

Through technological and scientific milestones, many diseases and conditions are being cured and improved. Through laser technology, cataracts can be removed and kidney stones can be obliterated in a matter of minutes. Indeed, more and more people are experiencing healthier and more fulfilling lives because of such medical breakthroughs.

Despite medical and scientific advancements, however, many people are still wary of undergoing surgery or taking newly-approved medication. Some individuals still prefer to exhaust all natural ways of healing and self-improvement, before they subject themselves under the knife. People tend to be more careful about undertaking medical procedures when it comes to their eyes.

Although laser-light technology has been available for the past years, many of those suffering from poor eyesight are still reluctant to undertake such treatment. Instead, more people are more comfortable and tolerant with natural healing processes, like Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

What is NLP?

Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP, is a field of study that is focused on suppositions that sounds, images, ideas and other sensory preceptors introduced to the unconscious mind can help a person achieve excellence. Believers of NLP assume that through verbal instructions a subjective perception of reality can be altered or changed for the better.

How can NLP Help Improve Eyesight?

NLP practitioners consider eyesight as a subjective experience. Hence, verbal impulses fed to the unconscious mind can help improve poor vision.

Many people experience losing something, such their car keys, and eventually finding them in places where they swear they have already checked. To illustrate, if you left your car keys on top of your microwave oven, instead of near the telephone, where it is usually placed, you won’t be able to find the keys on the top of the microwave oven, even if you searched your keys there. According to NLP practitioners, people tend to not see things in unexpected and unusual places — in this case, above the microwave oven.

The key to naturally improving your eyesight is through exercises that will help and enhance your senses. People who are wearing glasses often find themselves dependent on such contraptions because they have been used to the help of eyeglasses to have perfect vision.

Just as much as physical therapy is used to help people make use of their limbs again, eyesight exercises can also help improve your poor vision. Just regularly follow the exercises listed below, and, in no time, you will see a great improvement on your eyesight.

Tibetan Wheel

You can eliminate astigmatism by exercising the underused muscles of your eyes. The Tibetan Wheel, when done at least twice a day, could help improve the flexibility of all of your eye muscles.

Attach the Tibetan wheel to a wall, ensuring that its central point is at the same height as your nose. Without glasses or contact lenses, stand precisely at in front of the wheel, a few paces away. Ensure that you can comfortably see the chart from where you are standing. Then, walk closer to the chart, as the muscle of your eyes become even more flexible.

Once your eyes have adjusted, slowly move your eyes clockwise to the outer part of the chart. Then slowly use your eyes to outline the outer edge of the chart, until you reach to the point where you started. Do not over-exert your eyes; stop when you feel exhausted or dizzy.

Relaxation Technique Using Your Palms

Sit comfortably on a chair with your feet on the ground. Then, vigorously rub your palms together. Afterwards, put your cupped palms over your closed eyes. Rest the base of your palms on the bottom part of your eye socket. Now, think of black velvet and pay attention to its color and fabric.

Both exercises mentioned above will help exercise the muscles of your eyes and help your eyes feel relaxed. The more you undertake these exercises, the more you will experience clearer vision.

The Importance of Tire Choice and Maintenance in Road Safety

During my recent stint in the United Arab Emirates, I led a group of business students through development of a Road Safety Awareness campaign. Having spent four years investigating fatal traffic incidents in the greater Brisbane Metropolitan Area (Queensland, Australia), many years ago, it was an interesting revisit to road safety.

The Emirates has the highest road fatality rate in the world eg, in Dubai, one person dies every 32 h from some kind of road trauma. The rest of the country also figures high in road deaths. One area of our research that got my attention was the inordinately high number of single vehicle incidents apparently involving tyre failure.

The Emirates has some of the best roads I have seen; divided carriageways in excellent condition, multiple lanes, fencing to keep stock from the road, and brightly lit during the night. It also has some of the worst drivers and very lax law enforcement. Although the speed limits posted on major highways are 120 km/hr, most believe they can do 140 km/hr without being fined for speeding. Many people go much faster.

With money to burn, petroleum prices a pittance, fast cars and inexperience, it’s a dangerous mix that kills many young Emirati nationals every year. The mix is even more dangerous when drivers have no knowledge of tyre specifications and maintenance. I feel sure this lack of knowledge about tyres, apart from speed and lack of experience and attention, is a major cause of the many roll-overs on perfectly straight, well-engineered roads.

Tyres have different specifications depending on their use. Those specifications don’t only include such things as tread pattern, style and depth, construction etc, but more importantly, the maximum sustainable speed at which they can be used for long duration driving and maximum weight limitations.

It figures that if you buy a tyre with a maximum sustainable speed of 120 km/hr, it’s not a safe practice to travel for long at higher speeds. Given that the Emirates is a very hot country with ambient temperatures in summer months often around or above 50 degrees Celsius, the capacity of tyres to withstand high temperatures is also essential.

When buying tyres for a vehicle, the owner/driver needs to consider where, how and for how long the vehicle will be used. Getting water dispersant tread patterns in the Emirates would be pointless… it rarely rains, whereas in those cities with high rainfall, it makes much more sense. What one needs for the Emirates is a tyre that will sustain high speed driving on very hot roads for at least three to five hours at a time. While the loading capacity of a tyre isn’t as important (they are usually overspecified) on sedan vehicles, on a light truck, it needs to be factored into the purchase decision. Additionally, the loads placed in light trucks need to fit tyre capacity. No overloading.

The next important considerations are tyre inflation and wheel alignment. Improper wheel alignment will cause tyres to wear unevenly and is usually a matter of wasting money by reducing tyre use rather than a safety matter (unless the tyre becomes bald). Tyre pressure, however, is critical.

Manufacturers of tyres and motor vehicles specify the inflation pressure of tyres, usually with varying loads. Apart from wearing out tyres faster if they are under or over-inflated, tubeless tyres can also roll off their rims if they don’t have sufficient air pressure. With too much air pressure, tyres may burst or develop weak spots in the tyre walls. These may eventually fail causing tyre blowout, collapse or complete disintegration.

Given that the tyres are what keep a vehicle from skidding and provide traction, it’s not rocket science to suggest that they are an integral part of overall road safety. Poor tyre selection, improper use and poor maintenance can lead to disasters.

If we could only get Emirati drivers to pay more attention to their tyre selection, maintenance and use, the lives of many people could be saved annually. But, as I found so many years ago, changing people’s attitudes is so very difficult, even when it involves saving their lives.

How long is it since you checked your tyre pressure?

Copyright 2008, Robin Henry

Milestone Machine: 1984 Hildebrand and Wolfmullet

“Before the beginning of great brilliance and beauty there first must be a period of complete chaos.”

— I Ching

One could arguably trace the embryonic days of motorcycling back to 1817 and the German ‘hobby horse’ which was in effect a human powered two-wheeler with the locomotive force provided by paddling one’s feet along the pavement. Good for shoemakers, bad for the spine. More efficient cranks and pedals attached to a wheel didn’t appear until 1861 when a Frenchman put it all together. Over the next two decades, a succession of two-, three- and four wheeled steam- and gasoline-powered cycles huffed, puffed and sputtered themselves into existence as the evolution of the motorcycle spawned ever newer, and occasionally better, designs across Europe and America.

Although the above quote from the prophetically inclined I Ching may not pertain to the entire state of the fledgling world of motorcycles prior to 1894, it wasn’t until that year that things began to coalesce. The year brought profound changes, those advances synthesized from German, French and British designers and manifested in one of the seminal machines of motorcycling… the Hildebrand & Wolfmuller.

The stage was set: Munich, Germany, 1894. Not far away in Russia, Nicholas II, the last of the pre-Soviet czars had ascended the throne while further east China and Japan were at war in Korea. However, politics and empire building were of little interest to brothers Heinrich and Wilhelm Hildebrand. They were busy revolutionizing human transportation. True, their initial focus had been on building steam powered machines in an effort to conquer the steep inclines of their beloved Bavarian hills, but it was a start, if a hot and bubbly one. After a period of steamy experimentation, Heinrich and Wilhelm discovered that a bunch of hot air could only take you so far. Being bright and industrious lads, the Hildebrands decided to join forces with two nimble-minded engineers Alois Wolfmuller and Hans Geisenhof, both residents of nearby Langsberg, a few kilometers from Munich. Geisenhof brought some extra clout to the party as he had been a member of the Benz automobile group and knew his way around powerplants.

The Geisenhof/Hildebrand early efforts resulted in a rather anemic and unreliable two-stroke gasoline fed engine, a powerplant that did not reach their level of expectations. But then it was Wolfmuller’s turn to try his hand. He met the challenge, designing a much more robust four-stroke engine of parallel twin design. Unfortunately the sheer mass of metal that went into his creation proved too burdensome for the spindly bicycle “safety” frames of the era. In fact, very shortly after implantation, the weight of the engine snapped the frame. Now they had an engine, but no frame.

It was not exactly back to the drawing board since the H&W team came up with a reworked version of the frame originally utilized by their 1889 steam bike, so all that effort had some pay back after all. The twin-tube, open duplex design nicely accommodated the big four-stroke gas engine. It seemed to be a well-planned out execution including the fuel tank attached neatly to the down-tubes. In any case it all managed to hold together well enough for the clerks at the Munich patent office to grant their official state stamp of approval. Thus as of January 1894 the Hildebrand & Wolfmuller motor cycle was a legitimate, and thus saleable, product. Now all the four inventors had to do market the fruits of their labor.

They promptly formed a company called, with true Teutonic verbal efficiency, the Motofahrrad-Fabrik Hildebrand & Wolfmuller and built headquarters in Munich. The company’s coffers were well stock with funding and now it was full-steam, rather now full-gasoline, ahead as the entrepreneurs hastened to put their innovative H & W motorcycle into production… and into the history books as literally the first vehicle to be described with the generic term “motor cycle.”

The H &W was also remarkable for several other “firsts.” For one, it featured the largest engine ever successfully fitted into a two-wheeled production vehicle in the 90-year history of two-wheelers with a displacement of 1498cc from a pair of horizontal cylinders with a bore and stroke of 90 x 1117 mm.

A closer look at the engine uncovers its steam heritage as the design incorporated long connecting rods that linked, in a steam locomotive style, directly to rear wheel spindle cranks that incorporated an epicyclical reduction gear. The solid rear disc wheel stood in place of a flywheel (a design that would later haunt H &W) while a pair of wide rubber straps facilitated the return stroke of each piston. Borrowing from the Daimler auto people, the H &W utilized a platinum hot tube as a means of igniting the fuel that found its way from the gas tank to a surface type carburetor. The inlet valves themselves were automatic, while long rods and a cam on the rear wheel actuated the two exhaust valves.

Yet another technological development borrowed from other designers was the combination rear fender/water tank configuration. First innovated by the Englishman Edward Butler and the Frenchman Georges Richard, the fender served not only to keep the rider tidy, but also served as a reservoir for a supply of water used to cool the engine. In addition one frame tube took the place of an oil tank. Yes, an oil-in-the frame, water-cooled four-stroke engine of almost 1500cc displacement built more than a hundred years ago. Such wonders obviously will never cease, but this was a “first.”

It also seems the Munich motorrad was the first motorcycle to come equipped with pneumatic tires, the air-filled rubber treads built by the German company of Veith via the British Dunlop company who had pioneered the tire design in 1888.

Now, with all the accolades heaped upon the H&W notwithstanding, the machine did have its share, and then some, of shortcomings. The term “spoon” is used to describe the Stone Age-ish contrivance working its friction upon the front tire. When it was applied, it also automatically closed down the throttle, while in the early models, a pedal operated a metal plate to bring it into direct contact with the pavement in a further if desperate effort to slow the bike’s forward progress. It certainly made for an entertaining and startling sight in the dark hours of night with sparks flying all about. At least it would give ample warning for pedestrians to make their escape.

The starting procedure for the H&W required grit, grip and cardio-vascular integrity. Gripping the machine you flung it and yourself forward, your legs pumping as fast as they could go until you heard the pop and crack of ignition… there was no clutch by the way…and then you would leap aboard and make all effort to quickly find the thumb-screw operated throttle and then turn it just the right amount to maintain an equal supply of fuel. In other words, athletic ability akin to Olympic bobsledding and the dexterity of a brain surgeon were helpful.

But the rewards were… well you were off and running to a maximum of 28 mph, all the H&W’s 2 ½ horses could manage at a ripping 240 rpm. Again, these are relative fun-factor figures since we must remember we’re blasting along on 1894 roads, our snarling, spark throwing machine terrorizing man and beast. The world would have to pass in a blur, since even the steam powered trains of the day, riding on nice safe steel rails, could only manage twice the bike’s speed.

The H&W was indeed “wunderbar”, and at first glance a brilliant success, a miraculous machine that caught the fancy of many an adventurous and advant garde customer of the day. Orders flooded the company’s offices to the tune of 2, 000, 000 Deutschmarks. Such was the public demand, and the money in hand, that Hildebrand and Wolfmuller ordered up architectural plans for an all new factory to be erected on the Colosseum Strasse. Its vast interior would be home to 1200 employees not to mention satellite buildings and the contracting of work from many local engineering workshops. You could say that H&W had brought a boom of more than one kind to the city of Munich.

As part of the promotional activities H &W sent one of their new machines to Paris to test the French Vichy waters. The plans included a public relations fete hosted by bon vivant Pierre Giffard, a newspaper publisher and pioneering motor sport enthusiast, who in fact had hosted the world’s first motoring contest, the 1894 Paris-Rouen race.

Once again it was another glorious outing for the H&W, and as a result the French company of Duncan, Suberbie et Cie signed on as licensed dealers. However, they felt the German name might not be that much of a selling card for their French customers and conjured up the named “La Petrolette” which seemed to translate to something like “small gasoline.” But in any case there was an almost immediate order for 50 of the motorcycles, so the French called in for a hundred just to be safe.

Now the “Duncan” of that French company was an Englishman transplanted to Paris, and he was very bully for the bike, and thought it would be good advertising to stage a race in the lovely town of Lille. So it came to pass in the spring of 1895 that the roar of “La Petroletttes” were to resound in the previously tranquil French countryside. However, Fate made a sudden and foreboding detour in the fortunes of the H&W. A fire broke out in the event’s hotel the night before race day, the flames ravaging the three bikes intended for the demonstration. Moreover, adding insult to injury, the loud sounds of the exploding Dunlop tires fed rumors that the gasoline powered machines were inherently dangerous. While the event was canceled, it did not thwart the H&W company’s plans for expanding their market.

Looking for the proper venue to highlight his product, Wolfmuller himself transported two bikes to Italy where he and Giovanni-Battista Ceirano, an automobile enthusiast, would ride them in another history making event, the country’s first combination car and bike race. The machines would speed from the city of Turin to the village of Asti and return, all on the day of May 28, 1895.

Over hill and dale, the slew of pre-1900 cars and motorcycles slid, slipped and surged along the 62-mile course. By day’s end, the two stalwart H&W’s with Wolfmuller and Ceirano covered in dust and glory crossed the finish line in 2nd and 3rd Place, bested only by a Daimler automobile. But that glory was short-lived as the next race, the important Paris-Bordeaux-Paris race ended in disaster at the mid-way point as both H&D entries fell victim to what were becoming glaring and dangerous design flaws. The problems lay with the hot tube ignition, and the erratic handling of the rear wheel caused by its poor flywheel effect that in turn caused the rider to lurch around violently on his mount.

When things go wrong, they can go wrong all at once and as if nobody had an inkling until it all too late. Not only were the bikes in need of “recall,” the bean-counters back in Paris and Munich finally figured out that the cost of making the machines was more than their price tags. In effect, the company was operating in the red. And then it started, the droves of first-time customers, recently acquainted with their new purchases, were writing unpleasant letters about starting problems among other issues.

Worse yet, many wanted their money back. Sadly, by 1897 and after producing approximately 800 machines, the German and French companies imploded, and the H&W was no more. While the marque became another of the many short-lived and long extinct motorcycles, it had well-earned its niche in the history books. As the first production motorcycle, H&W had brought together many innovations and the genius of several nations, and in so doing carved yet another stepping stone on the long, often rocky road of the motorcycle’s evolution.

In all fairness, the Hildebrand and Wolfmuller should be remembered in the context that it represented the pivotal moment when the so-called motor-bicycle entered the public consciousness as the motorcycle. And like many technological introductions, it had a dramatic effect on the cultural psyche. An English test rider of the day, after riding the H&W responded, “I have never forgotten the first sensation of riding a bicycle propelled by its own power. The feeling of traveling over the ground without effort was delightful. From that moment I became a staunch believer in the motor-bicycle and predicted a great future for it.”